Africa and its unknown History

Africa and its unknown History
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Africa and its unknown History

Africa is a name that has become a sensation. Africa is home to 1.216 billion people, the world’s second-largest population and second-largest continent after Asia. Africa is a well-known term that reaches far beyond the Nile’s banks to the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The moniker is one that has become associated with historical relics over time. Africa is largely acknowledged as humanity’s cradle.

It was once known as Alkebulan. “Mother of Mankind” or “Garden of Eden”. In the late 17th century, It became a continent. Originally, the name was primarily used to refer to Africa’s northwestern regions. Europeans explored Africa and ruled over its people as slave masters throughout this age of colonialism. The name Alkebulan was changed to Africa because of this.

After three Punic battles (264 BC to 146 BC) led by Publius Cornelius Scipio and the inhabitants of Carthage, which is now Tunisia, the word Africa was coined by Europeans and brought into Western use by the Romans. According to several hypotheses, the word “Africa” has Greek and Latin roots.

It has a diverse landscape as well as a fascinating history, making it a continent with incredible biodiversity. It is much more than poverty and apartheid, which are well-known around the world.

There are 54 countries and a number of disputed areas in the region. Sudan was once largest country before being divided into Sudan and South Sudan. Algeria is presently Africa’s largest country in terms of land area. Cairo is Egypt’s capital and largest city.

It was not only the cradle of humanity but also of early civilizations that made significant contributions to the globe and are still admired today. The most famous example is Kemet—ancient Egypt’s original name—which arose more than 5,000 years ago in the Nile valley and was one of the earliest monarchies.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the continent has been inhabited by humans and their hominid forebears for some 4,000,000 years or more. Anatomically modern humans are believed to have appeared about 100,000 years ago in the eastern region of sub-Saharan . Somewhat later those early humans spread into northern and the Middle East and, ultimately, to the rest of the world.

It has more languages than any other continent. Arabic is extensively spoken from Egypt to Mauritania to Sudan. Northern Africans speak Afro-Asian languages. The vast majority of people in Sub-Saharan speak Bantu languages of the Niger-Congo family, whereas Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by a smaller number of people in central Khoisan languages are spoken by a smaller number of people in southern . In the 17th century, Dutch (Boer) migrations began, while English settlements in what is now Kenya and Zimbabwe began in the 19th century.

Egypt,  first significant historical monarchy, was established around 3000 BCE along the Nile and thrived for nearly 3,000 years. For nearly 600 years, the Phoenicians ruled over the western Mediterranean from their colony in Carthage. While the Romans ruled northern  for several centuries, Ghana (5th–11th century) established the first recognized empire in western Africa.

Mali’s (1250–1400) and Songhai’s (1400–1591) Muslim dynasties were among the most powerful. The emphasis in eastern and central Africa was on trade with Arabia, and several major city-states were created, including Mogadishu and Mombasa. In the 15th century, the Portuguese set sail towards the western coast. Some of the world’s great civilizations flourished in Africa in the years before 1500, including Kush, Axum, and Great Zimbabwe.

By the 15th century, had developed into a vastly diverse continent. In many ways, great kingdoms and empires like Mali in the west and Ethiopia in the east were out of the ordinary. In various parts of the continent, many people live in communities with little or no income or power disparities.

These early conquered empires by travelling from place to place and adding new regions to the nations’ masses, resulting in Africa’s current standing as the world’s second largest continent. The moors are still one of history’s most powerful, affluent, and educated civilizations.

African slavery

Slavery has existed in various forms on all continents at various periods throughout history—for example, as a means of exploiting individuals captured in conflict—particularly where there were labor shortages and plenty of land. Prior to the emergence of Islam, slavery was undoubtedly present in several African communities. There are references to European slaves being branded in ancient Kemet, for example.

Later on, enslaved or unfree individuals might be found in other communities, particularly those that had powerful governments, albeit their status was generally similar to that of poor farmers. It could have been similar to that of mediaeval European serfs, who were obligated to generate an agricultural surplus or perform other obligations for a specific king.

However, when a demand for enslaved people grew outside , certain African cultures were able to meet it. Enslaved people, for example, were transported from the West to North Africa over the Sahara, much like other traded items like gold and salt.

Malik Ambar (1549–1626), born in what is now Ethiopia, is the most well-known slave of East heritage. He was enslaved at a young age and rose through the ranks of the Indian kingdom of Ahmednagar, where he was known for his military battles against the Mughals.

Before the late nineteenth century, Europe had little interest in colonizing Africa. Nevertheless, by 1884, European countries had begun a race to partition the continent, and by 1920, much of it had been colonized. Anticolonial feelings grew steadily after 1950, becoming universal, and the colonies gained independence one by one, the last in 1990. The continent’s main difficulties in the early twenty-first century are political instability, refugee issues, starvation, and AIDS.

Conclusion

There was a tremendous amount of diversity on the continent, and thus societies at various phases and levels of development. Most importantly, Africans had developed their own economic and political systems, cultures, technologies, and philosophies, which enabled them to achieve remarkable breakthroughs and make significant contributions to human knowledge.

 

 

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