The possible impact of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health is discussed in Men’s Health and Infertility There is growing evidence that the quality of human sperm has decreased globally in recent decades. This decline may be influenced by environmental, occupational, and lifestyle-modifiable factors. This review focuses on important lifestyle factors that are linked to Men’s Health and Infertility, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary habits, and coffee use. Other elements include testicular heat stress, sleep deprivation, and mobile phone electromagnetic radiation exposure.
The lifestyle factors associated with Men’s Health and Infertility
Role of stress on Men’s Health and Infertility
Men’s Health and Infertility itself is stressful owing to societal demands, testing, diagnosis, therapies, failures, unfulfilled ambitions, and even related financial expenditures. Stress is a major component of every civilization. Serum parameters may be associated with stress, which can lower testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsing, which in turn lowers spermatogenesis and sperm quality.
Men’s Health and Infertility may be caused by psychological stress, which is linked to decreased paternity and aberrant semen parameters.
According to a significant meta-analysis encompassing males from 26 different countries/regions, smoking results in a decrease in sperm quality in both fertile and Men’s Health and Infertility. Male smokers’ sperm concentration is typically 13–17 percent lower than that of non-smokers. Furthermore, sperm motility, morphology, and count have all been negatively linked to smoking. As compared to light smokers (1–10 cigarettes per day), the loss in semen quality was observed to be more pronounced in heavy (> 20 cigarettes per day) and moderate (10–20 cigarettes per day) smokers. Men’s Health and Infertility had a larger influence than the entire population. Smoking promotes DNA damage, aneuploidies, and sperm mutations, all of which are detrimental to male fertility.
Semen volume and sperm morphology are negatively impacted by alcohol consumption. Alcohol has been demonstrated to adversely affect sperm motility and morphology when it is directly exposed to spermatozoa at amounts comparable to those observed in serum after moderate and heavy drinking.
Teratozoospermia was discovered in male partners of couples experiencing primary infertility in 63% and 72% of cases of moderate (40-80 g/day) and heavy (> 80 g/day) alcohol consumption, respectively. None of the heavy drinkers had normozoospermia, and the majority (64%) had oligozoospermia, which is suggestive of growing testicular injury in response to daily alcohol consumption.
Illegal substances that have a detrimental effect on male fertility include marijuana, cocaine, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), opiates (narcotics), and methamphetamines’. These medications’ side effects may affect sperm function, testicular architecture, and the HPG axis.
The most commonly misused illicit substance in the world, cannabis, or more generally known as marijuana, is most frequently used by men. Young males who regularly smoke marijuana (more than once per week in the previous three months) have been found to have decreased sperm counts overall and sperm concentrations, and this effect is amplified when marijuana is combined with other recreational substances.
The body mass index can be used to assess the relationship between overweight and obesity and excessive fat storage (BMI). Males with obesity are more likely to experience Men’s Health and Infertility and have lower-quality sperm (BMI 25–30 kg/m2 and BMI 30 kg/m2). Obese males were more likely to be infertile because their sperm contained a higher proportion of DNA fragmented, abnormally shaped, and low mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) sperm. ROS levels are correlated with sperm with significant DNA fragmentation and low MMP.
The age of 35 is considered advanced maternal age because women face much higher risks of having an unfavorable pregnancy outcome after that point. APA, on the other hand, has not been as clearly defined, with studies typically defining it to be between 35 and 50 years of age or categorizing it into age ranges of 5 years; an age-associated decline in semen volume, sperm total, and progressive motility; normal sperm morphology; and an increase in DNA fragmentation. Sperm concentration did not decrease with increasing male age, despite its gradual drop.
Advanced paternal age (APA)
According to an analysis of sperm parameters in healthy men spanning a wide age range (22-80 years), sperm volume and motility decreased gradually and consistently with ageing, without reaching a specific age threshold. Semen quality is greatly influenced by diet and nutrition. A recent thorough systematic evaluation of observational research found that eating a healthy, balanced diet could increase male fecundity rates and semen quality.
For instance, it was discovered that low semen quality indicators were negatively associated with the Mediterranean diet, which is high in omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamins and low in saturated and trans-fatty acids. Therefore, increased adherence to the Mediterranean diet may help to enhance semen quality.
Another study determined that a normal “Western” diet consisted primarily of white meat, fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, whereas a more “prudent” diet focused more on red and processed meat, refined carbohydrates, and high-energy drinks. However, sperm concentration and morphology were not favorably correlated with the more sensible “prudent” diet. In fact, a nutritious diet was said to increase at least one aspect of semen quality. First off, replacing processed red meat with fish is a strategy that may improve sperm counts and morphology.
Over 76 percent of caffeine consumers experienced a small increase in semen volume when compared to fertile vasectomy patients who drank less than six cups of coffee per day.
Through sperm DNA damage, caffeine consumption may harm male reproductive function. In contrast to DNA adducts, the study reveals that caffeine use may be linked to double-strand DNA breaks and sperm aneuploidy. Age-unrelated increases in double-strand sperm DNA damage were observed in healthy, non-smoking men who consumed more than 308 mg (about 2.9 cups) of coffee per day.
Other lifestyle risk factors
Men’s Health and Infertility is significantly increased by genital heat stress brought on by scrotal hyperthermia. Heat stress in the testicles can be brought on by lengthy periods of sitting, exposure to sunlight, varicocele, and cryptorchidism. Germ cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and sperm DNA damage are all caused by elevated scrotal temperatures.
As the volume of semen was lower in patients who had trouble falling asleep, including those who smoked or were overweight, sleep disruptions may likely have a negative impact on Men’s Health and Infertility. Sperm were discovered to be affected by a lack of sleep. Potentially detrimental effects on the testicles could result from exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation from using a cell phone.
The strength of the evidence demonstrating each risk factor’s negative impact on Men’s Health and Infertility, as reviewed in the present review, varies. Nearly every study focuses on the particular effects of one or a maximum of two risk factors that were being examined. However, in practice, exposure to multiple risk factors happens simultaneously, with each component having a different length of exposure. The implication is that we may already be underestimating the effects of each exposure because we lack perspective on the bigger picture of these intricate exposures.