This current Disease Outbreak News on the multi-country Monkey pox outbreak is an update to the previously published Disease Outbreak News of 10 June, with updated data, some further details on surveillance and reporting, One Health, gatherings, Risk communication, and community engagement and International travel and points of entry.
As of 22 June, 2 746 cases of have been reported from 29 countries and areas throughout the European region
Monkey pox potential global pandemic could be sparked by its spread outside of the African nations where it is commonly prevalent. Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are two central or west African nations where Monkey pox typically occurs.
Nearly 400 suspected and confirmed cases of Monkey pox have been reported to the World Health Organization in nearly two dozen nations outside of the states where the virus is common since Britain first reported a case on May 7.
Monkey pox (fever, swollen lymph nodes, followed by a centrifugal evolving rash) Only a few or even just one lesion may manifest; lesions that start in the genital or perineal/perianal region and do not spread further; lesions that manifest at various (asynchronous) stages of development; and the development of lesions prior to the onset of fever, malaise, or other constitutional symptoms. While it is known that close physical and intimate skin-to-skin or face-to-face contact can result in transmission (via direct contact with infectious skin or lesions), it is unclear what role sexual body fluids, such as semen and vaginal fluids, play in the transmission of Monkey pox.
Between January 1 and June 15, 2022, 2103 laboratory-confirmed cases, one probable case, and one fatality were reported to WHO from 42 countries across five WHO Regions.98% of cases have been reported since May 2022.
In 1773, the European region accounted for 84% of confirmed cases. Confirmed cases have also been reported from the African Region (64%), the Americas Region (3%), the Eastern Mediterranean Region (12%), and the Western Pacific Region (1%). one percent The majority of cases reported (468 out of 2103 confirmed cases) from 14 countries for which demographic data and personal characteristics are available are reported in men between the ages of 0 and 65 (interquartile range: 32 to 43 years; median age, 37 years), with the median age being 37 years.
The Americas, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, and Western Pacific regions where Monkey pox uncommon or has not yet been reported. The African Region has also recorded 1536 suspected cases since the start of the year, including 59 confirmed cases and 72 reported deaths, from eight different countries.
The viral family known as Orthopoxviral includes both moneybox and smallpox. A viral disease called Monkey pox first appeared in rodents and primates before spreading to humans. It was initially discovered in Africa, primarily in areas with tropical rainforests, but it is now spreading over the world, notably in Western nations. According to the WHO, Monkey pox often manifests clinically as fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes and may cause a variety of medical issues. Symptoms of Monkey pox can continue for two to four weeks and are typically self-limiting.
According to one explanation, Monkey pox spreads more quickly among those under 45 who are not protected against smallpox by vaccination. Monkey pox can also be prevented by smallpox vaccines, which have been found to be about 85% effective, although they are scarce. According to experts, Monkey pox may exploit any weaknesses in worldwide immunity to replace smallpox.
Given that the current outbreak of Monkey pox has had a low mortality rate and that this is the first time that cases and clusters of the disease have been reported simultaneously in numerous countries across a wide range of geographical areas, the public health risk is currently rated as moderate on a global scale.
Cases have mostly, but not entirely, been reported, transmission from person to person is still happening, particularly in one demographic and social group. The number of cases is probably underestimated. This may be partially attributed to a lack of early clinical diagnosis of an infectious disease that was previously believed to primarily affect West and Central Africa; a non-severe clinical presentation in the majority of cases; insufficient surveillance; and a lack of readily accessible diagnostics. While attempts are being made to close these gaps, it’s crucial to keep an eye out for Monkey pox in all population types to stop further transmission.
Numerous transmission methods, including personal contact (touching an infected person, particularly the rash or pustules), contact with contaminated objects, clothing, bedding, and airborne particles, as well as close physical contact or sexual activity, are supported by the evidence.
All nations should be on the lookout for warning signs of individuals who appear with a rash that develops in phases sequentially-macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs-and that may be accompanied by fever, enlarging lymph nodes, back discomfort, and muscular aches. A lot of people are exhibiting unusual symptoms during this outbreak.
To effectively manage the current outbreak and identify and stop new cases, it is crucial to raise awareness among potentially impacted populations, healthcare professionals, and laboratory employees.